More about Radars

In France, in 1934, as a result of systematic studies on the anode magnetron, the research arm of the Compagnie Générale de Telegraphie Sans Fil (CSF), led by Maurice Ponte, with Henri Gutton, Sylvain and M. Hugon Sedan, began to develop a -localizando radios of obstacles, of which part was installed in the liner Normandy in 1935.
During the same period, Soviet military engineer P. K. Oshchepkov, in collaboration with the Leningrad Electrophysical Institute, produced an experimental apparatus, RAPID, an aircraft capable of detecting within 3 km of a receiver. The Soviets produced their first mass production radars RUS-1 and RUS-2 Redut in 1939, but further development was slowed by the arrest NKVD Oshchepkov and the expedition to the Gulag. In total, only 607 Redut stations took place during the war. The first Russian airborne radar, gneiss-2 entered service in June 1943 to Pe-2 fighters. More than 230 gneiss-2 stations occurred at the end of 1944. The French and Soviet systems, however, had the continuous operation of the waves and could not give full power was finally the center of modern radar.
The full radar evolved as a pulse system and the first elementary device was demonstrated in December 1934 by the American Robert M. Page, who worked at the Naval Research Laboratory. The following year, the US Army successfully tested a primitive surface radar surface to target coastal battery reflectors at night. This was followed by a pulsed system demonstrated in May 1935 by Rudolf Kühnhold and firm GEMA in Germany, and then in June 1935 by a team of Air Ministry led by Robert A. Watson-Watt in Britain. Extended radar development September 1, 1936 Watson-Watt became superintendent of a new facility under the British Air Ministry, Bawdsey Research Station located in Bawdsey Manor, near Felixstowe, Suffolk. The work resulted in the design and installation of aircraft detection and tracking stations called “Chain Home” along the East and South coasts of England in time for the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. These Information provided vital system that contributed to the Royal Air Force wins the battle of Britain.
In 1935, Watt was asked to pass judgment on the recent reports of a German-based death ray and handed Wilkins’ request. Wilkins returned a series of calculations showing that the system was fundamentally impossible. When Watt then asked what they could do, Wilkins recalled the previous report on aircraft that cause radio interference. This led to Daventry experimenting on 26 February 1935, using a powerful BBC Shortwave transmitter as the source and GPO receiver located in a field while a bomber was flying around the site. When the returns were seen clearly, the funds were provided immediately for the development of an operating system. The Watt team patented device GB593017.
Given all the financial support and development needed, the team was working on radar systems in 1935 and began to unfold. In 1936, the top five home systems (CH) were operational in 1940 and spread throughout the UK, including Northern Ireland. Even by the standards of the time, CH was believed; Instead of broadcasting and receiving a directed antenna, CH emitted a signal that threw the entire area in front of it, and then used one of the Watt pagers have to determine the direction of the returned echoes. This means that CH transmitters needed to be much more powerful and have better antennas than competing systems, but allowed its quick introduction using existing technologies.
In April 1940, Popular Science showed an example of a radar unit using the Watson-Watt patent in an article on air defense. Also at the end of 1941 Popular Mechanics had an article in which an American scientist speculated on the British early warning system on the English East Coast and approached what it was and how it worked. Alfred Lee Loomis organized the Radiation Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which developed technology in the years 1941-1945. Later, in 1943, the page greatly improved the monopulse radar technique used for many years in most radar applications.
The war has precipitated research to find better resolution, more portability and more features for the radar, including complementary navigation systems such as the oboe used by the RAF Pathfinder.